History

The area's history can be traced back to 6000 B.C. The UAE as a federation did not exist then. The area and the surrounding region was referred to as Arabian Peninsula. This page provides a brief about life in the area during ancient times, the major events that took place on this land affecting the sovereignty and freedom of its people and leading them to form the country of the United Arab Emirates.

6000 - 3500BC
The Paleolithic Age
In this period, Bedouin communities lived on fishing and plant collecting. This era was characterised by the emergence of pottery, evidence of which was found in Sharjah, Umm Al Quwain, Ras Al Khaimah and Abu Dhabi.
6000BC-
Some pottery remains almost greenish-yellow, with black, geometric decoration were uncovered in Al Jazeerah Al Hamra in Ras Al Khaimah, in Hamriyah in Sharjah and in Al Madar site in Umm Al Quwain. ...
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Some pottery remains almost greenish-yellow, with black, geometric decoration were uncovered in Al Jazeerah Al Hamra in Ras Al Khaimah, in Hamriyah in Sharjah and in Al Madar site in Umm Al Quwain. The pottery remains resembled those found in Mesopotamia in the same period.

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5000BC-
It is characterised by wetter weather conditions. People lived in different parts of the land; in the coast and the interior. They depended on hunting, fishing, agriculture and animal grazing. ...
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It is characterised by wetter weather conditions. People lived in different parts of the land; in the coast and the interior. They depended on hunting, fishing, agriculture and animal grazing. Neolithic life in the area collapsed just after 4000BC when the climate deteriorated.

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3200 - 1300BC
The Bronze Age
This age is divided into three periods: the Jebel Hafeet period, the Umm Al Nar period and the Wadi Suq period.
3200BC-
This period was named the Jebel Hafeet period because of the tombs found in Jebel Hafeet near Al Ain city in the emirate of Abu Dhabi.
2000BC-
This period was named the Wadi Suq period after one of the sites in Wadi Suq, between Al Ain and the Omani coast.
1300 - 300BC
The Iron Age
The archaeological finds show the emergence of the first use of falaj irrigation systems that enabled the extraction of groundwater for continuous cultivation in the dry climate.
1300BC-
People in this era used ceramics, bronze, gold and iron artefacts, jewellery pieces of beads, gold, stones, as well as decorative stones, daggers, arrowheads, swords, axe heads, fish-hooks, knives ...
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People in this era used ceramics, bronze, gold and iron artefacts, jewellery pieces of beads, gold, stones, as well as decorative stones, daggers, arrowheads, swords, axe heads, fish-hooks, knives and pottery. It is believed that there were metal factories.

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1300BC-
Several large subterranean tombs were found. They all belonged to small farming villages on the terraces of the wadis. These tombs were built for a large group of people, who buried their dead ...
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Several large subterranean tombs were found. They all belonged to small farming villages on the terraces of the wadis. These tombs were built for a large group of people, who buried their dead together. The chambers of the tombs were lined with stones, they had an entrance and showed a broad variety of shapes.

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AD630 - 1258
Arrival of Islam
Islam arrived in the UAE after the opening of Mecca. Envoys from Prophet Mohammed (PBUH) arrived in the UAE in AD630 and introduced Islam. Thus, a new era began in the region during the emergence of Islam.
AD630
Amr bin al'As visited Oman and Sohar and brought the Prophet's message to the kings of Oman, while Abu Al-Ala'a Al-Hadrami visited Bahrain for the same purpose. The Gulf region willingly accepted the ...
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Amr bin al'As visited Oman and Sohar and brought the Prophet's message to the kings of Oman, while Abu Al-Ala'a Al-Hadrami visited Bahrain for the same purpose. The Gulf region willingly accepted the invitation to Islam.

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AD750-
The Islamic civilisation flourished in the Gulf region during the Umayyad Caliphate AD661 to 750 and Abbasid Caliphate AD750 to 1258. Sea trade prospered between the Gulf region and other areas in ...
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The Islamic civilisation flourished in the Gulf region during the Umayyad Caliphate AD661 to 750 and Abbasid Caliphate AD750 to 1258. Sea trade prospered between the Gulf region and other areas in South East Asia and West Africa coast, and ships craftsmanship spread in the region.

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AD1498 - 1650
The Portuguese era
The Portuguese were amongst the first Europeans to arrive on the Arabian Peninsula. After Vasco de Gamma's successful circumnavigation of the Cape of Good Hope, the Portuguese arrived in the Arabian Gulf in 1498.
AD1515-
By 1515, they fought their way into the Indian Ocean and the Gulf of Oman and established themselves there by force of arms. By 1560, they reached the height of their maritime power and established a ...
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By 1515, they fought their way into the Indian Ocean and the Gulf of Oman and established themselves there by force of arms. By 1560, they reached the height of their maritime power and established a semi-monopoly of the pepper and spice trade. They took over the role of intermediary for trade between the ports of the Indian Ocean from the members of the indigenous mercantile strata.

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AD1633-
Then arose the Ya'arabi forces that ousted the Portuguese from Julfar and Dibba in 1633, retook Sohar in 1643 and recaptured Muscat in 1650.
AD1622 - 1750
The Dutch era
The loss of Hormuz by the Portuguese in 1622 marked the entry of the Dutch and the English to the Middle Eastern markets.
AD1623
The Dutch concluded an agreement for the trade in silk with Shah Abbas I through which they earned an enormous profit. By the 17th century, the Dutch had become the dominant naval power in the Indian ...
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The Dutch concluded an agreement for the trade in silk with Shah Abbas I through which they earned an enormous profit. By the 17th century, the Dutch had become the dominant naval power in the Indian Ocean and Arabian Gulf.

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AD1750
By the 1750s, the Dutch power weakened because of the three-way warfare between them, the English and the French and they lost their holdings in most of the Indian Ocean. Later, the Dutch ...
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By the 1750s, the Dutch power weakened because of the three-way warfare between them, the English and the French and they lost their holdings in most of the Indian Ocean. Later, the Dutch strengthened their position on the island of Kharg by erecting a fortress and a factory and took over the various economic activities of the indigenous Arab population including pearl fishery.

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AD1720 - 1968
The British era
By 1720s, trade by the British in the gulf had grown. The British were primarily concerned with asserting their naval power to safeguard trade links to India and keeping any European competitors out. By 1820, the British defeated the Qawasims.
AD1820-
After the defeat of the Qawasims, the British signed a series of agreements from 1820 to 1853 with the sheikhs of the individual emirates. As per these agreements, the sheikhs had to ensure peace at ...
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After the defeat of the Qawasims, the British signed a series of agreements from 1820 to 1853 with the sheikhs of the individual emirates. As per these agreements, the sheikhs had to ensure peace at sea and refrain from building large ships and erecting fortifications along the coast. However, regular warfare at sea between Arab tribes was prevalent.

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AD1892-
In 1892, they entered into Exclusive Agreements with the Trucial States by virtue of which the Trucial States could neither dispose any of their territories except to the United Kingdom nor enter ...
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In 1892, they entered into Exclusive Agreements with the Trucial States by virtue of which the Trucial States could neither dispose any of their territories except to the United Kingdom nor enter into relationships with any foreign government without the consent of the United Kingdom. In return, the British would defend the emirates from foreign aggression by land or sea. In early 1968, the British declared their intention to withdraw from the Gulf by the end of 1971.

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AD1966 - 1971
Foundation of the UAE
Soon after assuming power on 6 August 1966, as the Ruler of Abu Dhabi, H. H. Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan underscored the importance of a united country and remarked, “In harmony, in some sort of federation, we could follow the example of other developing countries.”
AD1968
Sheikh Zayed, along with Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum, the then Ruler of Dubai met on 18 February 1968, at Al Samha in today’s Abu Dhabi near the south-western boundary of Dubai. From 25 to 27 ...
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Sheikh Zayed, along with Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum, the then Ruler of Dubai met on 18 February 1968, at Al Samha in today’s Abu Dhabi near the south-western boundary of Dubai. From 25 to 27 February 1968, the Rulers of these nine states convened a constitutional conference in Dubai and formed an agreement of 11 points, which was the basis for efforts to establish the ‘Federation of the Arab Emirates’.

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AD1971
On 18 July 1971, the Rulers of six of the seven emirates that made up the Trucial States, (except Ras Al Khaimah), decided to form a union. This meeting made the following historical declaration: ...
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On 18 July 1971, the Rulers of six of the seven emirates that made up the Trucial States, (except Ras Al Khaimah), decided to form a union. This meeting made the following historical declaration: “The Supreme Council felicitates the people of the United Arab Emirates, as well as the Arab people, and our friends around the world, and declares the United Arab Emirates as an independent sovereign state being a part of the Arab World.”

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