This page provides an explanation for the terminologies used in this portal in the context of eGovernment and mGovernment.

Big Data

According to Gartner, big data are high-volume, high-velocity and/or high-variety information assets that demand cost-effective, innovative forms of information processing that enable enhanced insight, decision making and process automation.

4th Industrial Revolution

It is a technological revolution that integrates physical, digital and biotechnologies to produce services and innovate products in new sectors.

Artificial Intelligence

The UN defines it as the branch of computer science concerned with the development of machines capable of performing activities that are normally thought to require a human type of intelligence with the ability to learn, understand, analyse situations, reason and make decisions.


According to IBM and Forbes, blockchain is a shared immutable real-time ledger for recording the history of financial transactions, contracts, physical assets, supply chain info, etc. It provides a permissioned network with known identities. There is no one person or party in charge of the entire chain. It is open and everyone in the chain can see the detail of each record or what is known as a block.


Each block is time stamped and encrypted. The only person who can edit a block is the one that owns it. Owners gain access to their block through a private key that only they have. When there are changes to an individual block, everyone’s distributed blockchain is updated and synced in real time.

Bounce rate

As per Google Analytics, it is the percentage of single-page sessions in which there was no interaction with the page. A bounced session has a duration of 0 seconds. 


eDirham or electronic Dirham is a mode of payment. It is a card that looks like a regular bank debit or credit card and functions almost like them. Users can load the cards with as much money as the type of card permits and use it to make payments. All eDirham can be used to pay for governmental and non-governmental services in the UAE. However, worldwide, only some cards can be used to pay for products and services; the card can be used while buying products and services from eDirham G2 merchants. eDirham can be used to make payments over the counter and on the internet. It can also be used to withdraw cash. 


A hackathon is an event where programmers code collaboratively in groups over a short period of time to create a functioning product and innovative solutions for socio-economic and environmental issues based on available data and technology.


According to the UNTERM portal, eGovernment or electronic Government involves the use of information technologies (such as wide area networks, the Internet and mobile computing) to exchange information with citizens, businesses and other arms of government and to provide services via the Internet. The concept of eGovernment espouses two aspects: eReadiness and eParticipation. 

eGovernment Development Index

According to the United Nations Public Administration Network (UNPAN), the eGovernment Development Index is a composite measure of three important dimensions of eGovernment, namely: provision of online services, telecommunication connectivity and human capacity. Read the United Nations eGovernment Survey 2016 (PDF, 6MB). 

Electronic forms (eForms)

According to Gartner, electronic forms (eForms) provide a user interface to data and services, typically through a browser-based interface. eForms enable users to interact with enterprise applications and the back-end systems linked to them. Web applications, eGovernment and eCommerce solutions have sparked the demand for better Web forms that support richer and more dynamic interactions than are possible with HTML forms. New eForm applications include XML content identification, multiple data callouts, field-level validation and embedded process logic contained within a secure format that’s often portable.


According to Gartner, eLearning is the use of Internet technology for learning outside of the classroom. eLearning suites are software solutions that enable automation, administration and training over the Internet. eLearning suites are integrated product collections that comprise learning management systems (LMSs), virtual classrooms, courseware and learning content management systems (LCMSs). An LMS is software that automates the training process and function and includes registration and administration tools, skills and records management, courseware access, and programming interfaces to packaged applications. An LCMS is an integrated set of technology that manages all aspects of learning content. This includes authoring or acquisition, content history, auditing, replacement, and deletion. An LCMS generally works in conjunction with an LMS.

Electro mobility (eMobility)

According to Gartner, electro mobility (or eMobility) represents the concept of using electric powertrain technologies, in-vehicle information, and communication technologies and connected infrastructures to enable the electric propulsion of vehicles and fleets. Powertrain technologies include full electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids, as well as hydrogen fuel cell vehicles that convert hydrogen into electricity. eMobility efforts are motivated by the need to address corporate fuel efficiency and emission requirements, as well as market demands for lower operational costs.


According to the UNTERM portal, it refers to the willingness, on the part of government, to use ICT to provide high quality information (explicit knowledge) and effective communication tools for the specific purpose of empowering people to participate in consultations and decision-making, both in their capacity as consumers of public services and as citizens.


ePay means paying for government services through electronic channels such as computers, laptops and kiosks. Payment could be made by using bank cards, eDirham or the direct debit facility from banks.


According to the UNTERM portal, eReadiness or electronic Readiness is the generic capacity or aptitude of the public sector to use information and communications technology (ICT) for encapsulating in public services and deploying to the public high quality information (explicit knowledge) and effective communication tools that support human development. 

Electronic signature (eSignature)

According to Gartner, an electronic signature (eSignature) is a traceable email or a biometric applied to a message. The biometric may be based on digitized handwriting (handwriting that is converted by cryptography into a digital signature) or a biometric (e.g., a fingerprint that can be combined with a hash or digest of the message to show the signer’s intent). The electronic signature cannot be removed and applied to other documents to forge a signature.

Electronic Waste (eWaste)

According to Gartner, electronic waste (eWaste), is a generic term used to describe all types of old, end-of-life or discarded electrical and electronic equipment, such as household appliances; office information and communications equipment; entertainment and consumer electronic equipment; lighting equipment; electric and electronic tools; toys; and leisure, sports and recreational equipment that are powered by electricity. eWaste contains both valuable and hazardous materials that require special handling and recycling methods.


The UAE Federal Government Network (FedNet) programme will provide a common infrastructure creating a convenient and on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources for all federal government entities.

Internet of Things (IoT)

According to Gartner, the Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical objects that contain embedded technology to communicate and sense or interact with their internal states or the external environment. 

Machine-to-machine (M2M) communications

According to Gartner, machine-to-machine (M2M) communications is used for automated data transmission and measurement between mechanical or electronic devices. The key components of an M2M system are: Field-deployed wireless devices with embedded sensors or RFID-Wireless communication networks with complementary wireline access includes, but is not limited to cellular communication, Wi-Fi etc.

Mobile commerce (mCommerce)

According to Gartner, mobile commerce (mCommerce) refers to the delivery of eCommerce capabilities directly to mobile service users by wireless technology. 

Mobile government or mGovernment

According to the UNTERM portal, mobile government or mGovernment involves the use of the mobile wireless communication technology within government administration and in its delivery of services and information to citizens and firms. 

Mobile payment or mPayment

As per the UAE mGovernment Roadmap, mPayment is defined as a payment process between two parties over a mobile device. 

Mobile portal

According to Gartner, a mobile portal is an Internet gateway that enables mobile devices to connect remotely with an enterprise intranet or extranet, typically via a Web browser interface. Consumer-oriented mobile portals provide access to mobile services and content using channels such as SMS, a microbrowser such as WAP, i-mode and voice. Consumer mobile portals aggregate content from many sources and may offer personalized services and content to mobile users — for example, unified messaging, news, search facilities, directories and m-commerce transactions.

Open data

According to Gartner, open data is information or content made freely available to use and redistribute, subject only to the requirement to attribute it to the source. The term also may be used more casually to describe any data that is shared outside the organization and beyond its original intended use, for example, with business partners, customers or industry associations.  Formally, data designated as ‘open’ is subject to several conditions and licensing that can be found at opendefinition.org.

Pages per session

(Average Page Depth) – As per Google Analytics, it is the average number of pages viewed during a session. Repeated views of a single page are counted.

Page views

As per Google Analytics, it is the total number of pages viewed. Repeated views of a single page are counted. 


As per Google Analytics, it is the total number of sessions within the date range. A session is the period time a user is actively engaged with your website, app, etc. All usage data (Screen Views, Events, Ecommerce, etc.) is associated with a session.

SSO (Single sign-on)

According to Gartner, single sign-on (SSO) provides the capability to authenticate once, and be subsequently and automatically authenticated when accessing various target systems. It eliminates the need to separately authenticate and sign on to individual applications and systems, essentially serving as a user surrogate between client workstations and target systems. Target applications and systems still maintain their own credential stores and present sign-on prompts to client devices. Behind the scenes, SSO responds to those prompts and maps the credentials to a single login/password pair. SSO is commonly deployed in enterprise, web and federated models.

Web accessibility

According to World Wide Web Consortium, web accessibility means that people with disabilities can use the web.